Dr B.R. Ambedkar and Nehru’s Contribution in the making of the Constitution

20/04/2024 0 By indiafreenotes

The making of the Indian Constitution was a monumental task undertaken by the Constituent Assembly, formed in 1946 after India’s independence. Driven by visions of social justice and democracy, it involved diverse representatives deliberating intensely for nearly three years. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee, played a pivotal role. The Assembly held extensive debates to encompass the vast social, economic, and cultural dimensions of India. Adopted on November 26, 1949, and enacted on January 26, 1950, the Constitution established a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic, embodying values of equality, freedom, and fraternity.

Dr B.R. Ambedkar Contribution in the making of the Constitution

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s role in the making of the Indian Constitution is monumental and central to understanding the evolution of the modern Indian state. Known as the “Father of the Indian Constitution,” his contributions reflect a deep commitment to establishing a framework for legal and social revolution in India, aiming to eradicate historical injustices and provide a secure and equitable society for all, irrespective of caste, religion, or gender.

Key Contributions of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

  1. Chairman of the Drafting Committee

Dr. Ambedkar was appointed as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly. In this capacity, he was responsible for drafting the constitutional document, steering the discussions and deliberations of the committee, and shaping the final document. His legal expertise and vision were instrumental in addressing complex issues related to governance, fundamental rights, and social justice.

  1. Architect of the Constitution

Ambedkar’s scholarship and his understanding of the Indian social fabric allowed him to infuse the Constitution with principles that aimed at transforming the traditional societal structures. He ensured that the Constitution became a tool for social transformation, geared towards rectifying historic injustices and empowering marginalized communities.

  1. Advocate for Social Justice

One of Ambedkar’s foremost contributions was his unwavering advocacy for the rights of the oppressed castes, the Dalits. He fought for the inclusion of specific provisions for the protection and advancement of historically disadvantaged groups, including the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. His efforts led to the reservation system in education, employment, and legislature, which remains a significant aspect of India’s affirmative action policy today.

  1. Champion of Fundamental Rights

Ambedkar’s legal expertise helped in formulating a comprehensive set of Fundamental Rights, enshrined in Part III of the Constitution, drawing from global examples such as the U.S. Bill of Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. He was instrumental in framing the rights related to equality (Article 14 to Article 18), right to freedom (Article 19 to Article 22), and right against exploitation (Articles 23 and 24).

  1. Promoter of Constitutional Methods

He was a staunch advocate for adhering to constitutional methods for achieving social and economic objectives, emphasizing the importance of non-violence and legal pathways over agitation and protest. His speech on the “Grammar of Anarchy” underscored his belief in constitutional governance rather than resorting to methods of civil disobedience or non-cooperation.

  1. Proponent of Women’s Rights

Ambedkar was also forward-thinking in his approach towards gender equality. He championed the rights of women, particularly in legal and marital issues, as evident in his support for the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to revolutionize Hindu personal law and provide women with rights of inheritance and divorce, although much of it was not accepted during his time.

  1. Economic Visionary

His insights into economic planning and administration were ahead of their time and influenced the Directive Principles of State Policy. Ambedkar believed in the importance of state intervention in the economy to ensure welfare and development, advocating for measures such as the right to work, education, and public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness, and disablement.

Nehru’s Contribution in the making of the Constitution:

Jawaharlal Nehru’s contribution to the making of the Indian Constitution was crucial, reflecting his vision for an independent India shaped by modern democratic principles. As the first Prime Minister of India and a prominent leader in the Indian independence movement, Nehru’s role was multifaceted and influential:

  1. Visionary Leadership

Nehru provided visionary leadership that was pivotal during the drafting of the Constitution. His ideas were instrumental in shaping the modern, secular, and democratic ethos of India. His emphasis on a scientific and rational approach to societal development influenced the constitutional framework.

  1. Objective Resolution

In December 1946, Nehru moved the ‘Objective Resolution’ in the Constituent Assembly, which outlined the aspirations and values that were to guide the Constitution. This resolution proposed that India would be a sovereign, democratic republic guaranteeing its citizens justice, equality, and freedom, and emphasized the importance of India’s unity while accommodating its diversity.

  1. Promotion of Secularism and Democracy

Nehru’s staunch secularism and advocacy for democratic governance were embedded in the Constitution. He championed a secular state where all religions were respected and where the state had no official religion. His commitment to democracy ensured that democratic processes were at the core of governance.

  1. Influence in Debates

Nehru was a key figure in the discussions and debates surrounding the Constitution. His opinions on various matters, including the language policy, structure of government, and federalism, significantly shaped the final document. His speeches and writings during this period highlighted his deep engagement with the process and his commitment to a constitution that balanced idealism with pragmatism.

  1. Integration and Unity

As a leading voice in the Constituent Assembly and the national political arena, Nehru worked tirelessly to ensure the integration of various princely states into the Indian Union, a crucial factor for the political unity needed for an effective constitution. His approach helped in stabilizing the initial years of the Indian republic and in maintaining democratic integrity.

  1. Institution Building

Nehru’s contributions also extended to the establishment of key institutions that would ensure the success of the democratic framework laid out in the Constitution. His vision included strong, independent institutions that could uphold the Constitution and its values, such as the Election Commission, the Supreme Court, and the Planning Commission.