Basic Network Architecture and The Layered Model in e-commerce

26/05/2024 0 By indiafreenotes

Basic Network Architecture:

Network architecture refers to the structure, components, and arrangement of computer networks, including hardware, software, protocols, and communication channels. It outlines how data flows between devices and systems within the network, ensuring efficient communication and data exchange. Network architecture encompasses various elements such as routers, switches, servers, firewalls, and cables, organized in a hierarchical or distributed manner. It defines the rules and standards for connecting devices, transmitting data, and ensuring network security and reliability. A well-designed network architecture is essential for supporting e-commerce operations, providing fast and secure access to online platforms, and facilitating seamless transactions between buyers and sellers.

Network architecture in e-commerce typically involves the following components:

  1. Clients:

These are the end-user devices such as computers, smartphones, or tablets used to access e-commerce websites or applications.

  1. Servers:

Servers host the e-commerce websites or applications and handle requests from clients. They store product information, process transactions, manage user accounts, and perform other backend functions.

  1. Internet:

The internet serves as the communication medium that connects clients to servers. It enables data exchange between users and e-commerce platforms through various protocols and networking technologies.

  1. Firewalls and Security Devices:

Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), and other security devices are used to protect e-commerce networks from unauthorized access, malware, and other cyber threats. They monitor and filter network traffic to ensure the security and integrity of data transmission.

  1. Payment Gateways and Third-Party Services:

Payment gateways and other third-party services facilitate online transactions by securely processing payments and providing additional functionalities such as shipping, inventory management, and analytics.

  1. Content Delivery Networks (CDNs):

CDNs are used to improve the performance and reliability of e-commerce websites by caching content and delivering it from servers located closer to the user’s geographical location. This reduces latency and speeds up page load times, enhancing the user experience.

  1. Database Servers:

Database servers store and manage the structured data used by e-commerce platforms, including product catalogs, customer information, order history, and transaction records.

Layered Model:

The layered model, also known as the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model or TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) model, provides a conceptual framework for understanding how network communication occurs. It consists of several layers, each responsible for specific functions:

  1. Physical Layer (Layer 1):

This layer deals with the physical transmission of data over the network, including the transmission medium (e.g., cables, wireless signals) and the electrical or optical signaling.

  1. Data Link Layer (Layer 2):

The data link layer is responsible for framing data into packets, error detection and correction, and managing access to the physical medium. Ethernet and Wi-Fi are examples of protocols operating at this layer.

  1. Network Layer (Layer 3):

The network layer handles the routing of data packets between different networks. IP (Internet Protocol) is the primary protocol used at this layer, and routers are devices that operate at this level.

  1. Transport Layer (Layer 4):

This layer ensures reliable end-to-end communication between applications. It manages data segmentation, flow control, and error recovery. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) are common protocols at this layer.

  1. Session Layer (Layer 5):

The session layer establishes, maintains, and terminates communication sessions between applications. It handles session synchronization, checkpointing, and recovery.

  1. Presentation Layer (Layer 6):

The presentation layer is responsible for data translation, encryption, and compression to ensure that data exchanged between applications is in a format that can be understood by both parties.

  1. Application Layer (Layer 7):

The application layer provides interfaces for applications to access network services. Protocols such as HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), and FTP (File Transfer Protocol) operate at this layer.